(a) workers continue to be governed by the existing agreement; and in 24 U.S. states, employees working in a unionized company may be required to contribute to representation costs (e.g., B at disciplinary hearings) if their colleagues have negotiated a union security clause in their contract with management. Contributions are usually 1 to 2% of salary. However, union members and other workers covered by collective agreements receive, on average, a wage premium of 5 to 10% compared to their non-unionized (or non-unionized) colleagues.  Some states, particularly in the south-central and southeastern regions of the United States, have banned union security clauses; This can be controversial, as it allows some net beneficiaries of the union contract not to pay their share of the costs of contract negotiations. .