On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  Under Article 28, the effective withdrawal date of the United States is the fastest possible date, given that the agreement entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be informed immediately (the UNFCCC came into force in 1994 for the United States) and come into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could only be submitted after three years of implementation of the agreement for the United States in 2019.   The Kyoto Protocol is an instrument of the climate convention that was adopted in 1997 at the Third Conference of the Parties (COP 3), which did not enter into force until 2005.  The Kyoto Protocol requires some industrialized countries (the “Schedule I parts”) to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol has placed a greater burden on developed countries, which are largely responsible for high greenhouse gas emissions (so-called “common but differentiated responsibilities”). Australia signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1998, but did not ratify it until 2007. The first “commitment period” of the Kyoto Protocol ran from 2008 to 2012. Australia met and exceeded its first target of 108% of emissions from 1990 to 2012.
Australia`s plan to use an accounting loophole to meet its obligations under the Paris climate agreement has no legal basis and suggests it is committed to further reducing emissions once a comprehensive agreement is reached, a new report says. However, the Australian government believes Australia will meet its 2030 target “through a policy based on its proven direct action approach.” These measures include the Emissions Reduction Fund and the associated protection mechanism, as well as a series of other measures to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy productivity. Chart 1 shows the main relevant policies and the amount of emission reductions the government believes it can achieve relative to Australia`s 2030 target. At the same time, the government is also reviewing Australia`s climate change policy to “take stock of Australia`s progress in reducing emissions and ensure that the government`s policy remains effective in achieving Australia`s 2030 target and the commitments of the Paris Agreement.”